What is the dictionary form of the word びょうき?
  • Is there a dictionary form for the word? I guess there has to be, but I'm confused since dictionary forms generally end with 'u'.
  • I can't really get with this question.

    病気 is both a noun (`illness') and no-adjective (`sick, ill`).

    Verbs do end with `u` (to be more precise, ichidan verbs end with -ru [-eru, -iru] and godan verbs end with -u [-u, -ku, -gu, -su, -mu, -nu, -tsu, -ru, -bu] and these are dictionary forms).
  • I don't quite get this question too, but I guess he/she wants to know what the verb form of 病気 is...as you said, 病気 is a noun and an adjective, so if you want to say "to fall ill", "to get sick" etc. in Japanese you have to use 病気になる.
  • 辞書形 refers to verbs. There are 5 classes of verbs in Modern Japanese.
    Kami Ichidan Katsuyou Doushi --these end in "ru" and have stems that end in i. Ex., miru.
    Shimo Ichidan Katsuyou Doushi --these end in "ru" and have stems that end in e. Ex., taberu.

    There is no conjugation difference between these two classes. They are collectively referred to as "ru" verbs.

    Terminology Note: The Jishokei/dictionary form in Japanese grammar terminology is referred to as the Shuushikei base. This may be used to look up verbs in the dictionary as well as the plain form of the non-past tense.

    Godan Katsuyou Doushi --Godan verbs/U verbs. They may end in 1 of 9 syllables.
    Nu.......Shinu (had to break the pattern because this is the only verb that ends in -nu in Modern Japanese).

    Godan verbs of any ending behave the same. However, there are very important contractions to be aware of.

    The biggest question that you may be wondering also is what is the difference between a Ru Verb and a ru-ending U Verb? Well, their conjugations are not the same.
    Also, the stems of an Ichidan verb end in a vowel whereas the stems of Godan verbs ends in a consonant. And, a Ichidan verb must never end in -aru, -uru, or -oru.

    There is a more complicated method of distinguishing between the rest without looking up that involves knowing what the original verb was in Classical Japanese.

    The remaining classes are the irregular verbs in Japanese--suru and kuru.

    Anyways, you now know what classifies as a verb being in the dictionary form.

    You are right that all verbs in Modern Japanese end in the vowel u in the terminal or dictionary form. However, sick is not a verb. It isn't in English either. It is a state. Therefore, in English we use "to be" with sick. The Japanese language takes a similar route.

    To become sick is "byouki ni naru". If you do not understand the pattern "ni naru", you should ask. To have or get an illness can be expressed in Japanese with "byouki ni kakaru".


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