Latin suffix -ium
  • Is there a Japanese variant of this Latin suffix used for nouns, to give the sense of something bigger? Like auditorium and atrium.
  • As Latin and Japanese are quite far apart, so I would not call it "Japanese variant". I would ask, however, whether there is word/construction in Japanese equivalent to the Latin suffix "-ium", with equivalent being defined as "(being a suffix and) adding the same (or similliar) meaning (to a noun)". Again, given how different Japanese and Latin are, I would not restrict the definition of equivalence to much and ask whether "there is a suffix or prefix adding a similiar meaning also, but not exclusively, to nouns."

    The first thing that comes to my mind, is 「大」, pronounce either おお or だい and added to "nouns" gives them a meaning of "big, a lot". Eg: 大問題、大ピンチ、巨大、絶大、大選手、大声、大型、大騒ぎ、大穴、大事、大味

    Similarly, there is also 「超」(a bit colloquially). Eg: 超過、超音波、超人、超絶、超ヤバい、超嫌い

    Given how kanji combine, you could probably find more kanji adding a sense of "great, big".
    (All examples taken from the Meikyou Jiten)

    Edit: Not really important enough to make a new post, but as for "suffix" vs "ending", that's mostly a pseudo-argument of definitions not worth arguing about.
    The common linguistic definition would include -ium as a suffix, see wiki:
  • -ium is not a suffix in Latin. The ending -um is just a normal noun ending such as -o or -a in Spanish, something we don't really have in English. As for the rest of your question, I second what blutorange posted.

    -edited to be more accurate-

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