Help with grammar DX
  • Hi, everyone. I just had a Jp test, and I really have some grammar problems that I want to make clear before advancing to the next part (don't really have a teacher... orz)
    Anyway, if anyone could explain these to me, I'd appreciate it:

    1. あのレストランはてんぷら__有名です。よく父__いきます。
    2. カフェテリア__昼ご飯__食べます。
    3. 誕生日のプレゼント__洋子さん__時計をあげます。
    4. 私わ父にベルトを__。先生にはお花を__。
    5. 祖父にかばんを__。先生からわセーターを__。
    6. 夏休みは__行きましたか。--いいえ、__行きませんでした。
    7. 洋服お__が好きです。 (買う)
    8. ブラウス_スカートを__たいです。(買う)
    9. 漢字で__ください。カタカナで__くだいさい。(書く)
    10. 山田さんはいらっしゃいますか。いいえ、東京に__。(行く)

    If it helps, I don't get the giver, receiver and stuff with number 4 and 5. I know they're meant to be marked by "ni", but I just don't get it...

    *needs to find a Japanese teacher Otl*
  • We generally don't help with these kinds of questions at this forum because it feels like a futile effort and can easily be abused by people who don't want to do their homework. Instead, we help people help themselves. Post your sentences with your answers and we'll help you understand what you did wrong and why, instead of giving you the answers before you try.
  • yes sorry you wont learn unless you try.
  • Ahh, sorry, my mistake.
    These are actually just the ones that I did wrong in my test, not my homework :( [Homework! Haha, I lol'd at that bit... I already stated that I didn't have a teacher, I'm a self-learner XD]
    Even if it will humiliate me to the deepest pit of hell, I'll put up what the answers I wrote for each if it will earn me explanations for where I went wrong (sorry for lack of hirigana, I can't write jp with this computer right now)

    1. I wrote "Ano resutoran wa tenpura de yuumei deus. Yoku chichi o ikimasu"
    But the correct answer was "Ano resturan wa tenpura de yuumei desu. Yoku chichi to ikimasu"
    What I don't really get is why it's "tenpura de" and not "tempura ni", and "yoku chichi o ikimasu" instead of "yoku chichi to ikimasu."

    2. Original answer was "Kafeteria ni hiru-gohan o tabemasu", but it's actually "Kafeteria de hiru-gohan tabemasu"
    I don't get why Kafeteria is marked by "de" instead of "ni"?

    3 and 4 and 5: I'm just confused about the "giver" and "receiver", because the sentence structure looks like it could have been used for both (aren't they both marked by "ni"?)

    6. I've got it now...

    7. Originally wrote "Yofuku o katte ga suki desu", but it's "Yokufu o kau no ga suki desu"
    I have a faint idea - is it the nominalizer "no" and writing the verb in plain form before "no" and "koto"?

    8. Original: "Burausu to sukaato o kau tai desu; correction "Burausu ya sukaato o kai tai desu"
    Because it was under test conditions, I really didn't know what "burausu" and "sukaato" was, so I'm still not very clear on what the question is actually saying...

    9. Original: "Kanji de kakanakute kudasai. Katakana de kaite kudaisai"
    Correction: "Kanji de kakanai de kudasai. Katakana de kaite kudasai"
    Does my mistake have something to do with the conjugation of "te-form' verbs? Because as I recall "kudasai" has to be written in "te" form, but then why is the first one "kakanai" and the second "kaite"?

    10. I wrote, "Iie, Tokyou ni ikimasendeshita", although it was "Yamada-san was irasshaimasu ka."
    Technically, I still don't understand what this question means...

    I hope that this will get some help... I'm really, really stuck on some of these.
  • Content .. very good .. very detailed first look at your support .. I will slowly start to see
  • 1. あのレストランは天ぷらで有名です。よく父と行きます。
    You use と ("and","with"), because the intended meaning is "I am often going there with my father."). Using が would result in a correct sentence, "My father often goes there.", but that is not what is meant. Usingを does not make any apparent sense, as it usually marks the object: Saying "To go my father to restaurant" or "To walk on my father." just is not meaningful.

    As for で, literally meaning "By using/making tenpura, this restaurant is famous". Why would you want to use に? に in the sense of location would not make sense. As marking an indirect object or as marking a manner (such as in 綺麗に分かる to cleanly split) is not much more meaningful either, especially since using で makes perfect sense. I guess this is something you just have to learn by seeing it used. If if you think there might be multiple possibilities, as long as you understand why the way it is actually expressed makes sense, it becomes easy to remember, to me at least.

    On a note, you could also just say 天ぷらの有名店 and just avoid the above mentioned confusion altogether : )

    2. カフェテリアで昼ご飯でを食べます。
    Both で and に can be used. The difference being that で emphasizes the action while に stresses the location. In this sentence it is apparently more important that you have eaten breakfast. Using で literally translated to "I ate breakfast using the cafeteria.". The cafeteria is marked as being instrumental to the act of eating, so it is kind of easy to see why で stresses the act.

    3. 誕生日のプレゼントは洋子さんに時計を上(あ)げます。
    Probably, you give her a watch as a birthday present. 「洋子さんが時計を上げました」, though technically meaning "She give a watch.", could not possibly mean to you, as being given by someone requires the verb 下さる. Both 上がる and 下さる mean "to give". 上がる means "from 1st to 2nd, from 1st to 3rd or from 2nd to 3rd" person, that is "from in-group to out-group". You give away to someone, so you speak respectful of him using 上 (up). On the hand hand, if someone gives you (or 3rd person to 2nd person), you humbly take it by using 下.

    Well, this topic is really hard to explain, I am not even sure I completely understand myself. Take a look at the relevant section in the book from http://grammar.nihongoresources.com/doku.php


    4. 私父にベルトを__。先生にはお花を__。
    5. 祖父にかばんを__。先生からセーターを__。
    I leave it to someone else to guess what is meant by these sentences. Unless I'm wrong, both 「先生にはお花を上げます」  ("I give a flower to my teacher") and 先生にお花を下さられます。(I was given a flower by my teacher.") would be possible. The same goes for the other 3 sentences, which have the same structure.

    The only thing I can think of, 「先生からはセーターを__」uses から ("from"), so this sentence should probably be 先生からセーターをもらいました。 "I received sweater from my teacher." So maybe in question 4 you give, and in 5 you receive... I hate such ambiguous and short and non-natural test sentences.


    6. 夏休みは何処か行きましたか。-- いいえ、何処も行きませんでした。

    7. 洋服を買うのが好きです。
    Yes, の is a short nominalizer often used with verbs. Technically, 「洋服を買う事が好きです」 is also correct, but is sounds more formal than seems to be necessary.

    8. ブラウスとスカートを買いたいです。
    ブラウス is a blouse and a スカート is a skirt. So, the sentence tries to say "I want to buy a blouse and a skirt.". Given that, と soul be obvious. As for たい, it is a helper adjective expressing desire. To join the verb 買う to たい you need to put it into its 連用形-"form (sometimes also called masu-stem). If you have no idea what a masu-stem is or why/how to change the verb, tell us and we can give you some resources to look it up.

    9. 漢字で書か無いで下さい。片仮名で書いて下さい。
    Yes, 下さい is joined to the te-form. ないで is another te-form of ない, which to my ears sounds much softer. Googling なくてください definitely tells us that this would be correct as well. The difference is in how it sounds and that なくて is technically correct and used in formal situations.

    10. 山田さんはいらっしゃいますか。いいえ、東京に行きました。
    いらっしゃる is a 尊敬語 (respectful language) verb for 居る (to exist). So, "Is Mr. Tanaka here? - No, he went to Tokyo."

    (Do not read if you do not want)
    As a bonus some etymology of いらっしゃる actually comes directly from the verb いる. The classical conjugation is いらせらる, which would nowadays be conjugated as いらせられる. As people started to get lazy, いらせらる became the much easier to pronounce word いらっしゃる. If you were to translate it, it would mean something like "be caused to exist", in other words, the causal passive form of "to exist". Obviously, taking it literally is meaningless.
    The background is that, using such a long indirect form you are not speaking of someone directly, thus it is respectful. Luckily, people today do not invent such weird formal forms anymore, but いらっしゃる and other old words are still used.
  • These are the correct answers (and sound natural):

    1. あのレストランはてんぷらで有名です。よく父と行きます。
    2. カフェテリアで昼ご飯を食べます。
    3. 誕生日のプレゼントに、洋子さんに時計をあげます。
    4. 私は父にベルトをあげます。先生にはお花を差し上げます。
    <--差し上げます is more polite<br />5. 祖父にかばんをもらいました。先生からはセーターをいただきました。
    <--いただきました is more polite<br />6. 夏休みはどこに行きましたか。--いいえ、どこにも行きませんでした。
    7. 洋服を買うのが好きです。 (買う)
    8. ブラウスとスカートを買いたいです。(買う)
    9. 漢字で書かないでください。カタカナで書いてください。(書く)
    10. 山田さんはいらっしゃいますか。いいえ、東京に行きました/行っています。(行く)
    行きました = He has gone, 行っています = He is going now
  • Oh, thanks everyone. I think I get this grammar now, it isn't as hard as I thought.
    Thank you all again C:

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