ni/de
  • I really have a hard time knowing when to use "ni" & "de". for ex., would I say, "Kono koto o getsuyobi ni moraimashita", or "Getsuyobi de moraimashita"? Tetsudatte kudasai, arigato!
  • You use 「に」:
    - when speaking about direction of an action expressed by a motion verb (go, run et cetera) or verb expressing action done to or for something/someone, ie.
    ・ がっこう「に」いきます - I go [to] school.
    ・ ともだち「に」プレゼントをあげました - I gave present [to] my friend.

    - when speaking about time (dates, hours et cetera) and time expressions (tomorrow, soon, on Monday et cetera), ie.
    ・ げつようび「に」パーティ「に」いきます。 - I go [to] the party [on] Monday.
    ・ あした「に」いまごろ、ばんごはんをたべるつもりです。- Tomorrow, at this time, we plan to have a dinner.
    ・ すぐ「に」かえるかも。 - He may return soon.

    - when state of being is involved, ie.
    ・ いまこうえんにいます。 - I am in the park now.
    ・ ここにいるひとのため。 - For people that are here right now.

    - with na-adjectives to create an adverb, ie.
    ・ しずかな - silent, quiet
    ・ しずかに - silently, quietly

    - with passive and causative voices. With passive voice, に marks performer of an action (who performed it) and with causative voice, it marks an object who let an action to take place.

    ・ このすしはたなかさん「に」たべられました。- This sushi was eaten [by] Tanaka.
    ・ こどもはおかあさん「に」こうえんであそばせました。- Mother (who?) let children play in park.

    You use 「で」:
    - when speaking about an action taking place WITHIN place, ie.
    ・ こうえん「で」あそぶのはたのしい。 - Having fun in the park is really enjoyable.
    ・ がっこう「で」べんきょうしています。- I study in the school.

    - when speaking about certain methods or tools used to perform an action, ie.
    ・ ペン「で」てがみをかきます。 - I write letters with a pen.
    ・ ひこうき「で」てがみをおくりました。 - I sent a gift by plane.

    - with na-adjectives, to create て-form, ie.
    ・ しずかな - silent, quiet
    ・ しずかで - silent, quiet (...)

Howdy, Stranger!

It looks like you're new here. If you want to get involved, click one of these buttons!

In this Discussion